FACTORI CARE SUSŢIN ÎNVĂŢAREA TRANSFORMATIVĂ INTERGENERAŢIONALĂ LA PĂRINŢI

Laurenţiu ŞOITU, Liliana - Camelia PAVEL

Abstract


Schimbările majore privind rolurile familiei în societatea actuală determină nevoia, din ce în ce mai stringentă, de educaţie şi autoeducaţie a părinţilor pentru exercitarea rolului parental. Autorii pornesc de la ipoteza că învăţarea transformativă – sintagmă datorată lui Mezirow – poate explica, într-o mare măsură, alegerile părintelui în acţiunile de parenting, prin procesul de reflecţie critică care presupune descoperirea şi depăşirea limitelor pe care individul le are în gândire şi în modul de a acţiona. Verificarea ipotezei se va realiza printr-un studiu, care constă în intervievarea a 15 fa­milii, fiecare cu trei generaţii de părinţi în interiorul ei (G1 – bunicii, G2 – părinţii, G3 – copiii care au un copil la rândul lor), însumând astfel 45 de participanţi. Scopul a fost o mai bună înţelegere a învăţării transformative prin identificarea factorilor care îi sprijină pe părinţi în renunţarea la comportamentele considerate disfuncţionale în relaţia cu copilul. Instrumentul care a stat la baza cercetării a fost un interviu de tip narativ prin care părinţii au relatat diferenţe şi asemă­nări în stilul de parenting raportându-se la propriii părinţi, strategii care i-au ajutat în depăşirea obstacolelor pentru înde­plinirea cu succes a rolului parental şi au evaluat impactul experimentării violenţei în familie în devenirea lor ca părinţi. Rezultatele arată că printre factorii care i-au determinat pe părinţi să aibă o gândire transformativă regăsim: suportul social (dialogul cu partenerul romantic, dialogul cu alte persoane – rude, familie, specialişti), reflecţia critică asupra experienţelor personale, contextul, nivelul de educaţie şi motivaţia părintelui.

FACTORS THAT SUPPORT INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING AMONG PARENTS

The major changes regarding the roles of family in the current society determine the more and more stringent need of parents to be educated or to self-educate in order to exercise their parental role. The article starts from the hypothesis that transformative learning – a phrase coined by Mezirow – can explain to a great extent the parent’s choices in parenting actions, through the critical reflection process, which involves discovering and overcoming the limits of the individual’s thought and action. The hypothesis will be assessed through a study, which consists in the interviewing of 15 families, each comprising three generations of parents (G1 – grandparents, G2 – parents, G3 – children who have a child, in their turn), with a total of 45 participants. The purpose was a better understanding of transformative learning by pointing out the factors supporting parents to give up on the behaviours considered dysfunctional in their relationship with the child. The instrument on which the research was based was a narrative interview, through which parents narrated differences and similarities in their parenting style, strategies that helped them overcome the obstacles in order to fulfil successfully their parental role. In addition, they assessed the impact of experimenting family violence in their becoming as parents. Outcomes show several factors that determined the parents to acquire a transformative thinking: social support (dialogue with the couple partner, dialogue with other persons – relatives, family and specialists), critical reflection on their personal experience, context, education level and parent’s motivation.


Keywords


transformative learning, parent-child relationship, critical thinking, intergenerational discontinuity in parenting, continuity in parenting, family violence.

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