GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF Eu DOPED GaSe SINGLE CRYSTALS BY X-RAY DIFFRACTION AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY

Dumitru UNTILA, Igor EVTODIEV, Iuliana CARAMAN, Valeriu KANTSER, Nicolae SPALATU, Liliana DMITROGLO, Silvia EVTODIEV, Dorin SPOIALĂ, Irina ROTARU, Petru GAŞIN

Abstract


GaSe single crystals doped with Eu (0.025, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 at%) were grown by Bridgman method using Ga, Se and Eu elementary components. The crystalline structure and vibration modes of the GaSe: Eu crystals lattice were studied by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Eu atoms arranged in the van der Waals space of GaSe: Eu crystals form Eu-Se valence bonds and restructure hexagonal lattice of GaSe leading to EuGa2Se4 crystallites formation. Defects generated by EuGa2Se4 crystallites lead to broadening and shifting of single phonon peaks present in Raman spectra towards shorter wavenumbers, and at the same time, activate the longitudinal optical vibrations of EuSe sublattice.

Keywords: GaSe, doping, Eu, XRD, Raman.

 

CREȘTEREA ȘI CARACTERIZAREA MONOCRISTALELOR DE GaSe: Eu
PRIN DIFRACȚIA RAZELOR X ȘI SPECTROSCOPIA RAMAN

Monocristalele de GaSe nedopate și dopate cu Eu în cantități de 0.025, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 și 3.0% at. au fost crescute prin metoda Bridgman din componente elementare Ga, Se și Eu. Structura cristalină și modelele de vibrație a rețelei crista­lelor de GaSe:Eu au fost studiate prin difracția razelor X și spectroscopia Raman. Atomii de Eu localizați în spaţiul van der Waals al cristalelor de GaSe:Eu creează legături de valență Eu-Se și restructurează rețeaua hexagonală a compusului GaSe, conducând la formarea cristalitelor de EuGa2Se4. Defectele generate de cristalitele de EuGa2Se4 duc la lărgirea și deplasarea benzilor monofononice de difuzie Raman spre numere de undă mici și, totodată, activează vibraţiile optice longitudinale ale subreţelei EuSe.

Cuvinte-cheie: GaSe, dopare, Eu, XRD, Raman.


Keywords


GaSe, dopare, Eu, XRD, Raman.

Full Text:

PDF

References


EVTODIEV, I. Anisotropy of the exciton processes in GaSe crystals with low S and Te concentrations. In: J. Nano-electron. Optoelectron, 2009, vol.4, p.76-88.

AUGELLI, V., MANFREDOTTI, C., MURRI, R., VASANELLI, L. Hall-mobility anisotropy in GaSe. In: Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter: Condens. Matter., 1978, vol.17, no.8, p.3221-3226.

ALLAKHVERDIEV, K., FERNELIUS, N., GASHIMZADE, F., GOLDSTEIN, J., SALAEV, E., SALAEVA, Z. Anisotropy of optical absorption in GaSe studied by midinfrared spectroscopy. In: J. Appl. Phys., 2003, vol.93, no.6, p.3336-3339.

CUCULESCU, E., EVTODIEV, I., CARAMAN, I. The anisotropy of the optical properties of ternary semiconductors formed by elements of III and VI groups. In: Phys. Status Solidi C, 2009, vol.6, no.5, p.1207-1212.

MOLLOY, J.F., NAFTALY, M., ANDREEV, Y., KOKH, K., LANSKII, G., SVETLICHNYI, V. Absorption aniso¬tropy in sulfur doped gallium selenide crystals studied by THz-TDS. In: Opt. Mater. Express, 2014, vol.4, no.11, p.2451-2459.

DZYALOSHINSKII, I.E., LIFSHITZ, E.M., PITAEVSKII, L.P. General theory of van der Waals forces. In: Phys. Usp., 1961, vol.4, no.2, p.153-176.

BREBNER, J.L. The optical absorption edge in layer structures. In: J. Phys. Chem. Solids, 1964, vol.25, no.12, p.1427-1433.

GOBBI, G., STAEHLI, J.L., GUZZI, M., CAPOZZI, V. Spectres excitoniques et propriétés structurales de GaSe. In: Helv. Phys. Acta, 1979, vol.52, p.337-341.

ABDULLAEV, G.B., KULEVSKII, L.A., PROKHOROV, A.M., SAVEL’EV, A.D., SALAEV, E.Y., SMIRNOV, V.V. GaSe, a new effective material for nonlinear optics. In: JETP Lett., 1972, vol.16, no.3, p.90-95.

ABDULLAEV, G.B., ALLAKHVERDIEV, K.R., KARASEV, M.E., KONOV, V.I., KULEVSKII, L.A., MUSTAFAEV, N.B., PASHININ, P.P., PROKHOROV, A.M., STARODUMOV, Y.M., CHAPLIEV, N.I. Efficient generation of the second harmonic of CO2 laser radiation in a GaSe crystal. In: Sov. J. Quantum Electron, 1989, vol.19, nr.4, p.494-498.

BELEN'KII, G.L., STOPACHINSKII, V.B. Electronic and vibrational spectra of III-VI layered semiconductors. In: Sov. Phys. Usp., 1983, vol.26, no.6, p.497-517.

ALLAKHVERDIEV, K., BAYKARA, T., ELLIALTIOGLU, S., HASHIMZADE, F., HUSEINOVA, D., KAWAMURA, K., KAYA, A.A., KULIBEKOV (GULUBAYOV), A.M., ONARI, S. Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe. In: Mater. Res. Bull., 2006, vol.41, p.751-763.

MANDAL, K.C., CHOI, M., KANG, S.H., RAUH, R.D., WEI, J., ZHANG, H., ZHENG, L., CUI, Y., GROZA, M., BURGER, A. GaSe and GaTe anisotropic layered semiconductors for radiation detectors. In: Proc. of SPIE., 2007, vol.6706, p.67060E.

CERDEIRA, F., MENESES, E.A., GOUSKOV, A. Splittings and correlations between the long-wavelength optical phonons in the layer compounds GaSe, GaTe, and GaSe1-xTex. In: Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter., 1977, no.16, p.1648-1654.

ERRANDONEA, D., MARTÍNEZ-GARCÍA, D., SEGURA, A., HAINES, J., MACHADO-CHARRY, E., CANADELL, E., CHERVIN, J.C., CHEVY, A. High-pressure electronic structure and phase transitions in mono¬clinic InSe: X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and density functional theory. In: Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter: Condens. Matter., 2008, vol.77, no.4, p.045208.

HIROHATA, A., MOODERA, J.S., BERERA, G.P. Structural and electrical properties of InSe polycrystalline films and diode fabrication. In: Thin Solid Films, 2006, vol.510, p.247-250.

DHANARAJ, G., BYRAPPA, K., PRASAD, V., DUDLEY, M. Crystal growth techniques and characterization: an overview. Springer handbook of crystal growth. Springer, Heidelberg/ Dordrecht/London/New York, 2010.

HSU, Y.K., CHEN, C.W., HUANG, J.Y., PAN, C.L., ZHANG, J.Y., CHANG, C.S. Erbium doped GaSe crystal for mid-IR applications. In: Opt. Express, 2006, vol.14, nr.12, p.5484-5491.

HOFF, R.M., IRWIN, J.C., LIETH, R. M.A. Raman scattering in GaSe. In: Can. J. Phys., 1975, vol.53, no.17, p.1606-1614.

JANDL, S., BREBNER, J.L., POWELL, B.M. Lattice dynamics of GaSe. In: Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter., 1976, vol.13, p.686-693.

GAUTHIER, M., POLIAN, A., BESSON, J.M., CHEVY, A. Optical properties of gallium selenide under high pressure. In: Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter., 1989, vol.40, nr.6, p.3837-3854.

OUSAKA, Y., SAKAI, O., TACHIKI, M. Theory of Raman scattering in magnetically ordered phases of EuSe and EuTe. In: Solid State Commun., 1977, vol.23, no.8, p.589-592.

ALLAKHVERDIEV, K.R., SALAEV, E.Y., TAGYEV, M.M., BABAEV, S.S., GENZEL, L. Davydov doublets in Raman spectra of ε-GaSe. In: Solid State Commun., 1986, vol.59, no.3, p.133-136.

KOKH, K.A., MOLLOY, J.F., NAFTALY, M., ANDREEV, Y., SVETLICHNYI, V.A., LANSKII, G.V., LAPIN, I.N., IZAAK, T.I., KOKH, A.E. Growth and optical properties of solid solution crystals GaSe1-xSx. In: Mater. Chem. Phys., 2015, vol.154, p.152-157.

ANAND, K., KAUR, J., SINGH, R.C., THANGARAJ, R. Effect of terbium doping on structural, optical and gas sensing properties of In2O3 nanoparticles. In: Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process., 2015, vol.39, p.476-483.

ARORA, A.K., RAJALAKSHMI, M., RAVINDRAN, T.R., SIVASUBRAMANIAN, V. Raman spectroscopy of optical phonon confinement in nanostructured materials. In: J. Raman Spectrosc., 2007, vol.38, no.6, p.604-617.

SINGH, J.P., SRIVASTAVA, R.C., AGRAWAL, H.M., KUMAR, R. Micro‐Raman investigation of nanosized zinc ferrite: effect of crystallite size and fluence of irradiation. In: J. Raman Spectrosc., 2010, vol.42, no.7, p.1510-1517.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.